Authors Kokozidou, M. ; Gögele, C. ; Pirrung, F. ; Hammer, N. ; Werner, C. ; Kohl, B. ; Hahn, J. ; Breier, A. ; Schröpfer, M. ; Meyer, M. ; Schulze-Tanzil, G.
Title In vivo ligamentogenesis in embroidered poly(lactic-co-e-caprolactone) / polylactic acid scaffolds functionalized by fluorination and hexamethylene diisocyanate cross-linked collagen foams
Date 04.04.2023
Abstract Although autografts represent the gold standard for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, tissue-engineered ACLs provide a prospect to minimize donor site morbidity and limited graft availability. This study characterizes the ligamentogenesis in embroidered poly(L-lactide-co-e-caprolactone) (P(LA-CL)) / polylactic acid (PLA) constructs using a dynamic nude mice xenograft model. (P(LA-CL))/PLA scaffolds remained either untreated (co) or were functionalized by gas fluorination (F), collagen foam cross-linked with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) (coll), or F combined with the foam (F·+·coll). Cell-free constructs or those seeded for 1&nbsp;week with lapine ACL ligamentocytes were implanted into nude mice for 12&nbsp;weeks. Following explantation, cell vitality and content, histo(patho)logy of scaffolds (including organs: liver, kidney, spleen), sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) contents and biomechanical properties were assessed.<br />Scaffolds did not affect mice weight development and organs, indicating no organ toxicity. Moreover, scaffolds maintained their size and shape and reflected a high cell viability prior to and following implantation. Coll or F·+·coll scaffolds seeded with cells yielded superior macroscopic properties compared to the controls. Mild signs of inflammation (foreign-body giant cells&nbsp;and hyperemia) were limited to scaffolds without collagen. Microscopical score values and sGAG content did not differ significantly. Although remaining stable after explantation, elastic modulus, maximum force, tensile strength and strain at Fmax were significantly lower in explanted scaffolds compared to those before implantation, with no significant differences between scaffold subtypes, except for a higher maximum force in F·+·coll compared with F samples (in vivo). Scaffold functionalization with fluorinated collagen foam provides a promising approach for ACL tissue engineering.
Journal Histochemistry and Cell Biology 159 (2023) 275-292

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