Authors Mousa, A. ; Heinrich, G. ; Wagenknecht, U.
Title The application of solid olive waste as reinforcement in carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber/organo nano layered silicates composites
Date 27.08.2013
Number 39424
Abstract The surface energy of organic biomaterial based olive solid waste (OSW) was measured and compared with that of organic nano layered silicates (NLS). The measured surface energy val-ue of the OSW was approximately similar to that of the NLS. Such fact provided the organic na-ture of both compounds were the trigger to produce hybrid filler that is a combination between OSW and NLS. The hybrid filler was incorporated into carboxylated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (XNBR). The samples were inspected with respect to their mechanical properties. It has been found that the hybrid filler was able to improve the tensile strength at break and the Young's Modulus as compared to the pristine control. The improvement in the tensile strength was at-tributed to: firstly; the exfoliation-intercalation dispersion state of the nanosilicates as evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) pictures. Secondly: the good interaction between the hybrid filler and the matrix being related to the polar nature of the hybrid filler and the matrix had increased the degree of crosslinking. The increased crosslink density was evidenced by the increased state of cure which is the difference between the maximum torque, Smax and minimum torque, Smin, (·S) derived from the moving die rheometer (MDR). The increased de-gree of crosslinking was accompanied by a decreased swelling index data. The cure rate index (CRI ) was increased with the addition of the bio-waste material highlighting the role of the OSW to promote the crosslinking reaction. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed that the storage Modulus (E`) has been increased after the incorporation of hybrid filler, while the mechanical loss factor i.e. glass transition temperature (tand) has been reduced reflecting the reinforcing efficiency of the bio-waste material.
Publisher Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management
Citation Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management 39 (2013) 197-203

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