Authors Viljoen, D. ; Fischer, M. ; Kühnert, I. ; Labuschagné, J.
Title The tensile behaviour of highly filled high-density polyethylene quaternary composites: weld-line effects, DIC curiosities and shifted deformation mechanisms
Date 10.02.2021
Number 59198
Abstract The interactive effects between additives and weld lines, which are frequent injection-moulding defects, were studied in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and compared to weld-line-free reference samples. These materials were formulated around a D- and I-optimal experimental design, based on a quadratic Scheffé polynomial model, with up to 60 wt% calcium carbonate, masterbatched carbon black and a stabiliser package. Where reasonable and appropriate, the behaviours of the systems were modelled using statistical techniques, for a better understanding of the underlying trends. The characterisations were performed through the use of conventional tensile testing, digital image correlation (DIC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A range of complex interactive effects were found during conventional tensile testing, with DIC used to better understand and explain these effects. SEM is used to better understand the failure mechanics of some of these systems through fractography, particularly regarding particle effects. A measure is introduced to quantify the deviation of the pre-yield deformation curve from the ideal elastic case. Novel analysis of DIC results is proposed, through the use of combined time-series plots and measures quantifying the extent and localisation of peak deformation. Through this, it could be found that strong shifts in the deformation mechanisms occur as a function of formulation and the presence/absence of weld lines. Primarily, changes are noted in the onset of continuous inter- and intralamellar slip and cavitation/fibrillation, seen through the onset of localised deformation and stress-whitening
Publisher Polymers
Citation Polymers 13 (2021) 527

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