Authors Simon, P. ; Pompe, W. ; Bobeth, M. ; Worch, H. ; Kniep, R. ; Formanek, P. ; Hild, A. ; Wenisch, S. ; Sturm, E.
Title Podosome-driven defect development in lamellar bone under the conditions of senile osteoporosis observed at the nanometer scale
Date 03.05.2021
Abstract The degradation mechanism of human trabecular bone harvested from the central part of the femoral head of a patient with a fragility fracture of the femoral neck under conditions of senile osteoporosis was investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy. As evidenced by light microscopy, there is a disturbance of bone metabolism leading to severe and irreparable damages to the bone structure. These defects are evoked by osteoclasts and thus podosome activity. Podosomes create typical pit marks and holes of about 300–400 nm in diameter on the bone surface. Detailed analysis of the stress field caused by the podosomes in the extracellular bone matrix was performed. The calculations yielded maximum stress in the range of few megapascals resulting in formation of microcracks around the podosomes. Disintegration of hydroxyapatite and free lying collagen fibrils were observed at the edges of the plywood structure of the bone lamella. At the ultimate state, the disintegration of the mineralized collagen fibrils to a gelatinous matrix comes along with a delamination of the apatite nanoplatelets resulting in a brittle, porous bone structure. The nanoplatelets aggregate to big hydroxyapatite plates with a size of up to 10 x 20 µm2. The enhanced plate growth can be explained by the interaction of two mechanisms in the ruffled border zone: the accumulation of delaminated hydroxyapatite nanoplatelets near clusters of podosomes and the accelerated nucleation and random growth of HAP nanoplatelets due to a nonsufficient concentration of process-directing carboxylated osteocalcin cOC.
Journal ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 7 (2021) 2255-2267

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