Dr. Injamamul Arief


Research Division Elastomers
+49 351 4658 781 +49 351 4658 362


I am currently developing smart elastomers toward designing self-powered tactile and force sensors for soft robots. My research activities also involve the nanofabrication of rubber-based, micro-patterned, transfer-printed substrates for triboelectric and piezoelectric nanogenerators, energy storage, strain sensing, electromagnetic shielding etc.

Research highlights

  • Sustainable Energy
  • Electronic Skin
  • Tactile Sensing
  • Soft Robotics
  • Transfer Printing
  • Smart Rubbers
  • Electromagnetic shielding

Research interests

Commercial rubber-based piezoresistive strain sensors for soft robotic actuators

widely used PDMS-based matrices offer certain shortcomings in terms of long-term operation and performance. On the other hand, commercially available rubbers offer multiple benefits. We exclusively employ commercial rubber-based conductors for the fabrication of ultrasensitive strain sensors for soft robotic components.

Robust, stretchable transfer-printed Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) using commercial rubbers for sustainable, affordable energy harvesting solutions

Crosslinked rubbers offer extreme robustness against friction and other mechanical deformations under a wide range of temperature, strain amplitude, and frequency. Moreover, a crosslinked rubber has very good abrasion resistance properties. For the TENG fabrication, rubbers could be the ultimate materials of choice for obvious reasons.

Design and fabrication of integrated hybrid piezoresistive-triboelectric sensors and arrays for E-skin developments

In contrast to unitary embedded sensor on soft robots, a sensor array can detect a large-scale dataset of tactile maps, which can be processed to identify various signals using convolutional neural networks. In addition, e-skin can cover larger surface of a soft robot and can record complex texture information by producing varied electrical voltage signal as a function of vibration, touch or force.

Previous positions

  • Post-doctoral Researcher (2017-2020)
    Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères (IMP), Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, Villeurbanne, France
  • Post-doctoral Research Associate (2016-2017)
    Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, India

Notable Publications

Google scholar


1. Elastomeric microwell-based triboelectric nanogenerators by in situ simultaneous transfer-printing, Injamamul Arief, Philipp Zimmermann, Sakrit Hait, Hyeyoung Park, Anik Kumar Ghosh, Andreas Janke, Santanu Chattopadhyay, Jürgen Nagel, Gert Heinrich, Sven Wießner, Amit Das, Materials Horizons, 2022, 9 (5), 1468-1478. (

2. Super-elastic ultrasoft natural rubber-based piezoresistive sensors for active sensing interface embedded on soft robotic actuator, Shib Shankar Banerjee, Injamamul Arief, Rebecca Berthold, Mats Wiese, Max Bartholdt, Debashis Ganguli, Siddhartha Mitra, Subhradeep Mandal, Jörg Wallaschek, Annika Raatz, Gert Heinrich, Amit Das, Applied Materials Today 25, 2021, 101219

3. Designing Supertough and Ultrastretchable Liquid Metal-Embedded Natural Rubber Composites for Soft-Matter Engineering, Shib Shankar Banerjee, Subhradeep Mandal, Injamamul Arief, Rama Kanta Layek, Anik Kumar Ghosh, Ke Yang, Jayant Kumar, Petr Formanek, Andreas Fery, Gert Heinrich, Amit Das, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 13 (13), 2021, 15610-15620

4. Magnetorheology in CoNi nanoplatelet-based MRFs: effect of platelet orientation and oscillatory shear, I Arief, PK Mukhopadhyay, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 479, 2019, 326-331

5. Tunable CoNi microstructures in flexible multilayered polymer films can shield electromagnetic radiation I Arief, Y Bhattacharjee, O Prakash, M Sahu, S Suwas, S Bose , Composites Part B: Engineering 177, 2019, 107283.

6. Wool-Ball-Type Core-Dual-Shell FeCo@SiO2@MWCNTs Microcubes for Screening Electromagnetic Interference, Injamamul Arief, S Biswas, S Bose, ACS Applied Nano Materials, 1 (5), (2018) 2261-2271.

7. Recent trends in multi-layered architectures towards screening electromagnetic radiation: challenges and perspectives, Y Bhattacharjee, I Arief, S Bose, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 5 (30), 2017, 7390-7403.

8. FeCo-anchored reduced graphene oxide framework-based soft composites containing carbon nanotubes as highly efficient microwave absorbers with excellent heat dissipation ability, Injamamul Arief, S Biswas, S Bose, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9 (22), 2017, 19202-19214

9. Absorption-dominated electromagnetic wave suppressor derived from ferrite-doped cross-linked graphene framework and conducting carbon, S Biswas, Injamamul Arief, SS Panja, S Bose, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9 (3), 2017, 3030-3039.

10. Magnetorheological Payne effect in bidisperse MR fluids containing Fe nanorods and Fe3O4 nanospheres: A dynamic rheological study, Injamamul Arief, PK Mukhopadhyay, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 696, 2017, 1053-1058.

11. Tuning the shape anisotropy and electromagnetic screening ability of ultrahigh magnetic polymer and surfactant-capped FeCo nanorods and nanocubes in soft conducting composites, Injamamul Arief, S Biswas, S Bose, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8 (39), 2016, 26285-26297.