Authors di Persio, F.; Blecua, M.; Chaine, A. C.; Daue, T.; Mateo-Mateo, C.; Ezpeleta, I.; Pötschke, P.; Krause, B.; Inci, E.; Pionteck, J.; Punkari, T.; Keskinen, J.; Mäntysalo, M.; Melo, A.; Esteves, D.
Title Recyclability of novel energy harvesting and storage technologies for IoT and wireless sensor networks
Date 05.01.2024
Number 0
Abstract This paper aims to present a set of separation and recycling methods designed to recover valuable materials and components from innovative high-performance piezoelectric (PEG) and thermoelectric (TEG) generators and monolithic supercapacitors (SC) developed within the InComEss project. This project, a part of the European Horizon H2020 research program, focuses on creating environmentally friendly, cost-effective, and highly efficient Energy Harvesting Systems (EHSs) for powering wireless sensor networks. It combines advanced polymer-based composite materials for piezoelectric, thermoelectric, and supercapacitors, capable of harvesting and storing electrical energy from mechanical or waste heat sources. The authors initially identified key recoverable components. In PEG, these includes Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), silver electrodes, polyimide, fiberglass/resin composite and copper. In TEG the highest-value components are single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and polymeric matrices, along with the SWCNTs, while in SC, aluminium, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and carbon particles are targeted. This paper proposes a range of separation and recycling techniques involving mechanical, thermal, and chemical processes. These methods include microwave-assisted and pyrolysis thermal processes, various mechanical fragmentation and separation processes, hydrometallurgical recovery processes, and solvent-based dissolution methods. However, a comprehensive understanding of the end-of-life waste stream of these devices is necessary for further advancements. The authors are currently conducting a thorough laboratory assessment of the recovery methods to pinpoint the most effective recyclable options. The outcomes of this assessment will be shared in a subsequent article.
Publisher Elsevier
Citation Journal of Cleaner Production 435 (2024) 140525

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