Authors Pourmasoumi, P. ; Moghaddam, A. ; Mahand, S.N. ; Heidari, F. ; Moghaddam, Z.S. ; Arjmand, M. ; Kühnert, I. ; Kruppke, B. ; Wiesmann, H.-P. ; Khonakdar, H.A.
Title A review on the recent progress, opportunities, and challenges of 4D printing and bioprinting in regenerative medicine
Date 02.01.2023
Number 60740
Abstract Four-dimensional (4·D) printing is a novel emerging technology, which can be defined as the ability of 3·D printed materials to change their form and functions. The term time is added to 3·D printing as the fourth dimension, in which materials can respond to a stimulus after finishing the manufacturing process. 4·D printing provides more versatility in terms of size, shape, and structure after printing the construct. Complex material programmability, multi-material printing, and precise structure design are the essential requirements of 4·D printing systems. The utilization of stimuli-responsive polymers has increasingly taken the place of cell traction force-dependent methods and manual folding, offering a more advanced technique to affect a constructs adjusted shape transformation. The present review highlights the concept of 4·D printing and the responsive bioinks used in 4·D printing, such as water-responsive, pH-responsive, thermo-responsive, and light-responsive materials used in tissue regeneration. Cell traction force methods are described as well. Finally, this paper aims to introduce the limitations and future trends of 4·D printing in biomedical applications based on selected key references from the last decade.
Publisher Journal of Biomaterials Science / Polymer Edition
Citation Journal of Biomaterials Science / Polymer Edition 34 (2023) 108-146

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