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Special Methods

GNOMIX-PVT apparatus (GNOMIX INC., 3809 Birchwoold Drive, Boulder, CO 80304, USA) for detection of changes in spezific volume as function of pressure, temperature and time: Δ∨sp = f(P,t,t) (alternatively also ΔP = f(∨sp,T,t)).

Principle: Confining fluid (usually mercury) technique, ensuring hydrodynamic pressure to the sample at all conditions.

Sample: 1-2 mL, liquid or solid with variable geometry, no fine powder, no gas inclusions.

Measuring range: room temperature to 400 °C, 10 MPa to 200 MPa

Accuracy: +/- 0.002 cm3/g (below 200 °C); +/- 0.004 cm3/g (above 200 °C); changes in ∨sp as small as 0.0002 cm3/g can be resolved reliably.

Thermoelectrical measurement (Seebeck-Effect)

 

Measurement of electrical resistivity of powder

 

Temperature-dependent electrical measurements